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Function in C Programming

Author of this post is Shafi Sourov. This post is taken from here.

A function is an independent section of program code that performs a certain task and has been assigned a name.




By referencing a function’s name, your program can execute the code in the function.The program also can send information, called arguments, to the function, and the function can return information to the main part of the program. The two types of C functions are library functions, which are a part of the C compiler package, and user-defined functions, which you, the programmer, create.
For example

  1. #include <stdio.h>
  2.  
  3.  
  4. int val1, val2, val3;
  5. int product(int x, int y);
  6.  
  7.  
  8. int main( void ) // line 8
  9. {
  10. /* Get the first number */
  11. printf("Enter a number between 1 and 100: ");
  12. scanf("%d", &val1); /* Get the second number */
  13. printf("Enter another number between 1 and 100: ");
  14. scanf("%d", &val2);
  15.  
  16.  
  17. /* Calculate and display the product */
  18. val3 = product(val1, val2);
  19. printf ("%d times %d = %d\n", val1, val2, val3);
  20.  
  21.  
  22. return 0;
  23. } // line23
  24.  
  25.  
  26.  
  27.  
  28.  
  29.  
  30. int product(int x, int y)
  31. {
  32. return (x * y);
  33. }

Output of the above program:

Enter a number between 1 and 100: 35
Enter another number between 1 and 100: 23
35 times 23 = 805


The main() Function (Lines 8 Through 23)
The only component that is required in every executable C program is the main() func-tion. In its simplest form, the main() function consists of the name main followed by a pair of parentheses containing the word void ((void) ) and a pair of braces ({}). You can leave the word void out and the program will still work with most compilers. The ANSI standard states that you should include the word void so that you know there is nothing being sent to the main function. Within the braces are statements that make up the main body of the program. Under nor-mal circumstances, program execution starts at the first statement in main() and termi-nates at the last statement in main() .

THE #INCLUDE DIRECTIVE (LINE 2)
The #include directive instructs the C compiler to add the contents of an include file into your program during compilation. An include file is a separate disk file that contains information that can be used by your program or the compiler. Several of these files (sometimes called header files ) are supplied with your compiler. You rarely need to modify the information in these files; that’s why they’re kept separate from your source code. Include files should all have an .h extension (for example, stdio.h).
You use the #include directive to instruct the compiler to add a specific include file to your program during compilation. In Listing 2.1, the #include directive is interpreted to mean “Add the contents of the file stdio.h.” You will almost always include one or more include files in your C programs.


The Variable Definition (Line 4)
A variable is a name assigned to a location in memory used to store information.
Your program uses variables to store various kinds of information during pro-gram execution. In C, a variable must be defined before it can be used. A variable defini-tion informs the compiler of the variable’s name and the type of information the variable is to hold. In the sample program, the definition on line 4, int val1, val2, val3;, defines three variables—named val1, val2, and val3—that will each hold an integer
value.

The Function Prototype (Line 6)
A function prototype provides the C compiler with the name and arguments of the functions contained in the program. It appears before the function is used. A function prototype is distinct from a function definition, which contains the actual state-ments that make up the function. (Function definitions are discussed in more detail later today.




Program Statements (Lines 11, 12, 15, 16, 19, 20, 22,and 28)
The real work of a C program is done by its statements. C statements display information on-screen, read keyboard input, perform mathematical operations, call functions, read disk files, and all the other operations that a program needs to perform. Most of this book s devoted to teaching you the various C statements. For now, remember that in your source code, C statements are generally written one per line and always end with a semi-colon. The statements in multiply.c are explained briefly in the following sections.


The printf() Statement
The printf() statement (lines 11, 15, and 20) is a library function that displays inform tion on-screen. The printf() statement can display a simple text message (as in lines and 15) or a message and the value of one or more program variables (as in line 20).